About Kazakhstan



GEOGRAPHY

Area: 2.7 million sq. km. (1.05 million sq. mi.) Major cities : Astana (capital, June 1998), Almaty (former capital), Karaganda, and Shymkent.

Terrain: Extends east to west from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oasis and desert of Central Asia.

Climate: Continental, cold winters and hot summers; arid and semi-arid.

Border lengths: Russia 6,846 km., Uzbekistan 2,203 km., China 1,533 km., Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km., and Turkmenistan 379 km.


ECONOMY

GDP (2011) : $107.5 billion.

Exchange rate (recorded as of 11.06.2012) : 145.636 KZT/U.S. $1 in 2012.

GDP growth rate : 9.5% (2002); 9.2% (2003); 9.6% (2004 est.); 9.7% (2005 est.); 10.7% (2006); 8.5% (2007); 8% (2008), 9.2% (2009), 9,3% (2010), 9,5% (2011).

Inflation rate : 6.6% (2002); 6.8% (2003); 6.7% (2004 est.); 7.5% (2005); 8.4% (2006); 18.8% (2007 year-over-year); 10.8% (2007 average), 2.4% (2011).

Trade : Exports (2011 est.)--$50.88 billion. Imports (2011 est.)--$32.91 billion.

Gross external debt : $105.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.).

National (oil) fund reserves : $3.6 billion (2003); $5.1 billion (2004); $10.1 billion (2006); $22.6 billion (Feb. 2008), $35,2 billion (2011)

Officially recognized unemployment rate : 8.7% (2003); 8.4% (2004 est.); 8.1% (2005 est.); 7.4% (2006 est.); 7.1% (2007), 5.4% (2012 first quarter).

Population below poverty line : 11.8% (2011).